Socialisation et vaccination des chiots - Une question d’équilibre

Socialisation et vaccination des chiots - Une question d’équilibre

Vous venez d’aller chercher votre adorable petit chiot, tout frétillant et qui sent bon, et appréciez chacune des secondes passées en sa compagnie. Vous avez tout ce qu'il vous faut: des jouets à mâcher, un parfait petit collier, et bien sûr, son premier voyage chez le vétérinaire est déjà planifié.

Les premières visites du chiot chez le vétérinaire sont amusantes et bourrées d'informations! Dès le premier rendez-vous de 20-40min, votre vétérinaire abordera une plénitude de sujets, tel l'apprentissage de la propreté, l'alimentation, la croissance, le déparasitage, les vaccins, et plus encore. C’est beaucoup d'infos!

L'une des choses les plus importantes dont votre vétérinaire discutera est le calendrier des vaccinations et son interaction avec la période de socialisation de votre chiot. Cela peut être déroutant, et les recommandations peuvent avoir radicalement changé depuis la dernière fois que vous avez eu un chiot. Démêlons tout ça ...

À quoi servent les vaccins de base?

Le plus important des vaccins de base pour les jeunes chiots est pour la prévention des virus parvo et distemper. Ces deux virus sont inclus dans le vaccin DHPP (Distemper, Hépatite, Parainfluenza et Parvovirus).

Le distemper devient plutôt rare dans la plupart des États-Unis. Le virus provoque une maladie respiratoire, systémique, et parfois neurologique. C’est traitable, mais peut être fatal.

Le parvo est un virus malin et très contagieux qui attaque la muqueuse des intestins, provoquant des vomissements et de la diarrhée, souvent accompagné de sang. Cela peut conduire à une déshydratation sévère, faiblesse de l’animal, et parfois même à une septicémie ou une infection accablante. Le parvo se traite bien, mais peut être mortel chez les cas sévères. Le virus se loge dans les excréments, et est très stable, demeurant dans l'environnement pendant au moins 6 mois, ce qui le rend particulièrement risqué, car il peut - et le fait - traîner partout.

La rage est un vaccin distinct, et aux États-Unis c’est obligatoire pour tous les chiens dès l'âge de 4 mois. Il existe également d'autres vaccins tels que bordetella, leptospirose, lyme et grippe, qui peuvent être recommandés en fonction de l'endroit où vous vivez et du mode de vie de votre chiot. Demandez à votre vétérinaire de déterminer lesquels sont appropriés pour lui.

Immunité du chiot

Quand un chiot naît, son propre système immunitaire est faible, mais au fur et à mesure qu’il se nourrit de sa mère, il ingère des anticorps à travers le lait. Ces anticorps le protégeront contre les maladies pour lesquelles la mère a été vaccinée. Ces mêmes anticorps vont également interférer avec les vaccins donnés au chiot et c’est pourquoi il ne sert à rien de donner des vaccins à de très jeunes chiots.

Au fil du temps, les anticorps de la mère commencent à s'estomper, finissant par tomber en dessous du niveau requis pour le protéger et laissant ainsi le chiot vulnérable si exposé à la maladie. Cette période critique où les anticorps de maman ne sont pas assez élevés pour protéger, mais le sont assez pour interférer avec la vaccination s'appelle la « période-fenêtre ». C’est pendant cette période que les chiots sont le plus sensibles à contracter une maladie. Par la suite, les taux d'anticorps tombent suffisamment bas pour ne plus interférer avec les vaccins. Désormais, le propre système immunitaire du chiot peut répondre aux vaccins et le protéger contre les maladies pour lesquelles les vaccins sont destinés.

Il est impossible de prédire avec précision - pour chacun des chiots - à quel moment ces anticorps maternels s’estomperont suffisamment pour permettre aux vaccins de fonctionner, mais nous pouvons être sûrs que c’est le cas pour tous à 16 semaines. Les vaccins sont donc administrés à toutes les 3-4 semaines à partir de 8 semaines jusqu’à 16 semaines inclusivement. Le but est de débuter la vaccination dès que possible après la période-fenêtre, quand le corps du chiot peut répondre aux vaccins. À noter que si nous arrêtons de vacciner avant 16 semaines, il se peut que ce chiot ne soit toujours pas en mesure de répondre aux vaccins par lui-même. À l’inverse, si nous ne commençons pas les vaccins à 8 semaines, nous pouvons avoir une période de sensibilité prolongée lorsque le chiot n'a plus d'anticorps protecteurs provenant de la mère, mais n'a toujours pas reçu de vaccination pour stimuler sa propre immunité.

Période de socialisation

La période de socialisation est un stade de développement propre à tous les chiots qui dure de 3 semaines à environ 14 semaines, parfois un peu plus longtemps. C'est le moment de la vie du chiot pendant lequel il est le plus ouvert aux nouvelles expériences, explorant le monde et apprenant ce qui est sécuritaire et ce qui ne l'est pas. Si pendant cette période un chiot est exposé à toutes sortes de personnes, de chiens, de bruits, d'odeurs, de vues, de sons, de surfaces à marcher, etc., il est beaucoup plus susceptible de grandir heureux et confiant. Les chiots qui ne sont pas exposés à une grande variété de personnes et de lieux, qui sont séquestrés chez eux ou qui vivent de mauvaises premières expériences, auront très probablement peur au cours de leur vie lorsqu’ils se retrouveront dans de nouveaux contextes.  Malheureusement, cette peur peut non seulement être débilitante pour votre chiot, mais elle peut également conduire à des problèmes de comportement très sérieux, y compris l'agression. La période de socialisation est votre chance d'éviter des résultats potentiellement dévastateurs!

Une question d’équilibre

Maintenant que vous savez que votre chiot n'est pas entièrement protégé jusqu'à ses vaccins de 16 semaines, et qu'il y a un chevauchement inquiétant avec sa période critique de socialisation, la question est: Comment le socialiser sans le mettre inutilement en danger d’attraper une maladie? Avec prudence et créativité! Gardez à l'esprit qu'il n'y a aucun moyen d'être sûr à 100% que votre chiot n’attrapera pas le parvo - vous pourriez faire entrer le virus dans la maison après avoir marché sans le savoir sur une matière contaminée. Cependant, le risque d’attraper le parvo au cours d’une socialisation effectuée de façon prudente est beaucoup plus faible que le risque de développer des problèmes de comportement sérieux s’il n’y a pas de socialisation. Voici quelques directives générales pour s’assurer d’une socialisation sécuritaire:


Éviter à tout prix:

  • Parcs à chiens
  • Plages
  • Promenades sur la rue (même si en laisse)
  • Parcs de quartier (à moins de transporter le chiot dans les bras ou dans une poussette, voir ci-dessous)

Alternatives:

  • Porter ou utiliser une poussette pour se promener dans votre quartier ou votre ville.
  • Visiter les magasins permettant l’accès aux chiens. Essayez de porter ou de placer votre chiot dans un panier. Pensez aux magasins de rénovations, aux banques, aux magasins de vêtements, aux magasins de plein air ... quand vous entrez, demander à la caissière si c’est ok. Habituellement, les gens adorent être en présence de chiots!
  • Visiter des amis, avec ou sans chiens, tant que les chiens sont en bonne santé, vaccinés et aimables envers les chiots. Vérifiez également qu'il n'y a pas eu de chiots malades à la maison au cours de la dernière année.
  • Inviter des amis avec des chiens qui aiment les chiots pour une période de jeu à votre domicile!
  • Organiser des fêtes à votre domicile, invitant les gens à rencontrer votre chiot. Vous pouvez même organiser des soirées costumées avec des personnes portant des chapeaux, des lunettes de soleil, des perruques, etc., ou avec des béquilles, des marchettes ou des planches à roulettes. Essayez d'inviter des personnes de tous âges, des bébés aux enfants jusqu'aux aînés. Il est important pour les chiots d'apprendre que toutes les formes et tous les âges d’humains sont sans danger et amusants.
  • Prenez le chiot avec vous à l'école pour aller chercher / déposer les enfants. Gardez-le dans vos bras mais laissez les enfants lui donner plein de gâteries.
  • Demandez à votre vétérinaire la permission d’effectuer des « visites positives » entre les rendez-vous de vaccination afin que votre chiot apprenne à aimer le vétérinaire! Cela permettra à votre chiot d’avoir une meilleure vie et d’être en santé.
  • Si votre travail permet les chiens, pensez à amener votre chiot travailler avec vous ou à vous arrêter à l’heure du dîner ou lors de votre journée de congé pour rendre visite à vos collègues.
  • Dernier point mais non le moindre, les classes de maternelle et les groupes de jeu supervisés entre chiots font partie des meilleurs moyens (et les plus sécuritaires) pour socialiser un chiot. Des cours de chiots bien organisés vous aideront également avec ses pitreries normales - machouillage, propreté, etc. Une fois que votre chiot se fait des amis, vous pouvez également organiser des périodes de jeu entre les classes! Avertissement: soyez difficile sur le choix d’un entraineur pour votre chiot, incluant les cours de groupe. La formation de chien est une profession non réglementée et malheureusement, un mauvais conseil peut vraiment causer des dommages. Consultez cet article pour en savoir plus sur le choix d'un entraîneur, et recherchez un entraineur de l’Académie dans votre région ici.

Il n'y a rien de plus adorable qu'un chiot qui se tortille en se promenant dans votre salon. Profitez-en! Mais n'oubliez pas d’établir un plan - et de le suivre - pour garder votre chiot à l'abri de la maladie et des problèmes de comportement lors de sa croissance. Une bonne socialisation contrôlée est vraiment, vraiment importante. C'est l'un des meilleurs cadeaux que vous pouvez offrir à votre futur chien adulte: le cadeau de la confiance et de la joie.

 

Traduit par Claudine Prud'homme.

This article is also available in English. Cover photo credit: Groomee from iStock.

 

La traduction française de ce blog a été effectuée via "French Connection". L'Académie est heureuse d’annoncer "French Connection"!

Un bon nombre de nos étudiants proviennent de régions francophones, et nous sommes fiers de pouvoir désormais leur offrir un support en français afin de les accompagner dans la réalisation de leurs objectifs d'apprentissage.

Avec French Connection, nous offrirons également des traductions de certaines de nos publications existantes, et à compter d’aujourd’hui, nos nouveaux graphiques éducatifs seront disponibles en français et en anglais !

Si vous maîtrisez l'anglais, mais que le français est votre langue maternelle et que vous souhaitez en savoir plus sur la façon dont ce programme pourrait vous aider, prière de communiquer avec nous à This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. pour plus d'informations.

 

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Puppy Socialization and Vaccination – A Balancing Act

Puppy Socialization and Vaccination – A Balancing Act

You've just picked up your beautiful, wriggling, sweet-smelling little puppy, and you are loving every second of it. You've got everything ready: chew toys, that perfect tiny collar, and of course, your pup's first ever trip to the vet scheduled.

First puppy visits to the veterinarian are fun and packed with information! Your vet will go over so many things in that 20-40 min appointment – potty training, diet, growth, deworming, vaccines, and more. It's a lot of info!

One of the most important things your vet will discuss is the vaccine schedule and how that interacts with your puppy's socialization period. This can be confusing, and the recommendations may have changed dramatically since the last time you had a puppy. Let's hash this out...

What are puppy vaccines for?

The most important of the core vaccines for young puppies are for the prevention of parvo and distemper viruses. These are both included in the DHPP vaccine (Distemper, Hepatitis, Parainfluenza, and Parvovirus).

Distemper is becoming rare in most parts of the US. The virus causes respiratory, systemic, and sometimes neurologic disease. It is treatable, but can be fatal.

Parvo is a nasty, highly contagious virus that attacks the lining of the intestines, causing vomiting and diarrhea, often with blood. This leads to severe dehydration, weakness, and sometimes sepsis or overwhelming infection. Parvo is very treatable, but can be fatal in severe cases. Parvo is shed in the feces, and is very stable, remaining in the environment for at least 6 months. This makes it particularly risky, since it can – and does - hang out anywhere.

Rabies is a separate vaccine, and is required for all dogs in the US at 4 months of age. In addition, there are other vaccines such as bordetella, leptospirosis, lyme, and influenza, which may be recommended depending on where you live and your puppy's lifestyle. Ask your veterinarian to determine which are appropriate for your pup.


Puppy Immunity

When a puppy is born, his own immune system is weak, but as he nurses from his mom he ingests antibodies through the milk. These antibodies will protect him against diseases that mom has been vaccinated for. At the same time, the antibodies will interfere with any vaccines given to the puppy, so there's no point giving vaccines to very young pups.

Over time, the antibodies from mom start to fade, eventually falling below the level needed for protection and leaving puppy susceptible to disease if he is exposed. This critical period where mom's antibodies aren't high enough to protect, but are enough to interfere with vaccination is called the Window Period. During this time, puppies are most susceptible to disease. A little bit later, antibody levels will fall low enough that they will no longer interfere with vaccines. Now the puppy's own immune system can respond to the vaccines and protect him against the diseases the vaccines are for.

In an individual puppy it is impossible to predict exactly when those maternal antibodies will fade enough to allow the vaccines to work, but by 16 weeks we can be sure they have. This is why we vaccinate every 3-4 weeks starting at 8 weeks all the way through 16 weeks. We are trying to catch the puppy as soon as possible after that critical window of susceptibility, when his body can respond to the vaccines. If we stop vaccinating before 16 weeks, that puppy may still not be able to respond to the vaccines on his own. If we don't start vaccines at 8 weeks, we may have an extended period of susceptibility when the puppy doesn't have protective antibodies from mom anymore, but still hasn't received a vaccine to stimulate his own immunity.

Socialization period

The socialization period is a developmental stage of all puppies that lasts from 3 weeks through approximately 14 weeks, sometimes a little longer. This is the time in the pup's life when he is most open to new experiences, exploring the world, and learning what is safe and what is not. If a puppy is exposed to all manner of people, dogs, noises, smells, sights, sounds, surfaces to walk on, and so on during this period, he is much more likely to be happy and confident as he matures. Puppies that are not exposed to a wide variety of people and places, are sequestered at home, or have bad experiences early on, are very likely to be fearful in new contexts as they mature. Unfortunately this fear can not only be debilitating for your sweet pup, but it can also lead to very serious behavior problems, including aggression. The socialization period is your chance to prevent potentially devastating outcomes!

The Balancing Act

So now you know that your puppy is not fully protected until his 16 week vaccines, and that there is some worrisome overlap with his critical socialization period. How do you get him socialized without putting him at unnecessary risk of illness? With caution and creativity! Keep in mind that there is no way to be 100% sure your puppy will not get parvo – you could bring it into the house on your feet. However, the risk of parvo with careful socialization is much lower than the risk of serious behavior problems with no socialization. Here are some general guidelines to safe socialization:


Absolute don'ts:

  • Dog parks
  • Beaches
  • Walking down the street on a leash
  • Neighborhood parks (unless carried or in a stroller, see below)

Alternatives:

  • Carrying or using a stroller to take a walk through your neighborhood or city.
  • Visiting stores that allow dogs. Try to carry or place your pup in a cart. Think home improvement stores, banks, clothing stores, outdoor stores... ask the cashier as you come in if it's ok. Usually people love seeing puppies!
  • Going to friends' houses, with or without dogs, as long as the dogs are healthy, vaccinated, and puppy-friendly. Also check that there have been no sick puppies at the house in the past year.
  • Invite friends with puppy-friendly dogs over to your home for play dates!
  • Throw puppy parties at your home, inviting folks over to meet your new addition. You can even throw costume parties with people wearing hats, sunglasses, wigs, etc., or using crutches, walkers, or skateboards. Try to invite people of all ages from babies and kids on up to seniors. It is important for puppies to learn that all shapes and ages of humans are safe and fun.
  • Take the puppy with you to school to pick up/drop off the kids. Keep him up in your arms but let the kids shower him with treats.
  • Ask your veterinarian about doing “happy visits” in between vaccine appointments so your puppy learns to love the vet! This will set your puppy up for a lifetime of health and wellness.
  • If your work is dog-friendly, consider bringing your puppy to work with you, or stopping by at lunch or on your day off to visit with your coworkers.
  • Last but certainly not least, puppy class and chaperoned puppy playgroups are one of the best (and safest) ways to get your puppy socialization. Well-run puppy classes will also help you with normal puppy antics – chewing, potty training, etc. Once your puppy makes friends, you can arrange play dates between classes, too! A word of caution: be choosy about who your puppy trainer will be. Dog training is an unregulated profession and unfortunately the wrong advice can really cause damage. Check out this article on choosing a trainer, and look for an Academy Trainer in your area here.

There is nothing more lovable than a beautiful squirming puppy toddling around your living room. So enjoy! But don’t forget make a plan—and follow it—to keep your puppy safe from both disease and behavioral issues as they grow. Safe socialization really, really matters. It is one of the best gifts you can give your future adult dog: the gift of confidence and joy.

 

Cet article est également disponible en français - cliquez ici. Cover photo credit: Groomee from iStock.

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Our Responsibility To Dogs: Fear, Self-Knowledge, and Puffs of Air

Our Responsibility To Dogs: Fear, Self-Knowledge, and Puffs of Air

Have you ever had that test at the eye doctor, the one where they puff air against your eye? If not, just imagine it. Air in a puff right into your eye. “Don’t blink”, the doctor may tell you. Because typically, if a puff of air hits you in the eye, you blink. It’s a reflex, so you do it automatically. (Bear with me if you will, as we go down this path just a bit. We’ll get to dogs soon enough and it’s worth the journey.)

Imagine you feel a bit of a breeze in your home one day. Just a tiny movement of the air. You pinpoint the crack in the plaster where it’s coming from and crouch down, only to get a puff of air in your eye.

And you blink.

“Well hold right on, that’s not right” you say. You’ve lived in this windy city for years; your eyes are hardened against gale force winds. You’ve competed professionally in staring contests. You’ve worn contact lenses far past the time they feel like sandpaper dipped in jalapeño juice. Ain’t no way a puff of air is going to make you blink. Other people, sure, they’d blink at anything. But not you.

So what’s going on with the blink, then? Something must be really wrong, you decide. Maybe it’s a chemical leak. You take an axe to your wall and start to dismantle it. It’s obviously unsafe for anyone to live in this house, this house with a blink-worthy air leak through a crack in the wall. Something’s there, puffing away, just waiting to kill you and your family. Or worse.

This probably sounds ridiculous, doesn’t it? You are likely whispering “why don’t I just admit that blinking is a reflex? Why the tortuous logic and wall dismantling?” And you’re right to whisper that. You really are.

We all, to a one, blink when a puff of air hits our eyes.

Blinking protects our eyes from damage. Our eyes are important to our survival, as you can well imagine. So evolution has bestowed upon us this gift, this automatic behaviour. Blink! In fact, evolution has gifted us with a lot of reflexes and behaviours, gained somewhat painfully through our long primate history as delicious-looking and (until tool-making proliferated, at least) poorly-armed mammals sprinting across the savannah. One of these gifts is the ability—the wondrous ability—to quickly identify threats and get the heck away from them. Sitting in an office with a dog snoozing beside me on the couch, it’s hard to imagine the frequency and severity of threats that my great-great-great-to-the-power-of-twelve-grandmother would have faced. I worry about the diseases of old age as my eventual demise, the majority of my primate ancestors worried about something a bit more immediate: being eaten. Pass the floss; this one’s a bit stringy.

Since being eaten was our relatives’ numero uno cause of death for the vast majority of our evolutionary history, we evolved some special ways to avoid it, just like all our meals-on-legs mammalian compatriots. I mean we have those wonderful blinking eyes, of course. But even more fundamental, even more foundational, we have fear. We naturally find certain things scary, or we’re born ready to quickly acquire fears. Fear, as all dog trainers know, causes flight. Or fight. And the things we find scary are the things that killed us in great numbers, of course. Those random great-great-great-grand-siblings of ours that didn’t find giant predatory birds or giant predatory hyenas or giant predatory crocodilians to be scary didn’t live long enough to reproduce, if you know what I mean. Hand over the floss; that one was a bit stringy. You see? Fear matters. Fear kept us safe.

We are all, to a one, scared of dogs.

As a dog training professional, you might be saying “hold on a second here. I’m not scared of dogs. I love dogs. I’ve dedicated my life to dogs!” And yes, all of that is true, too. One doesn’t replace the other. Or more, you may be saying “um, actually, I’m so un-scared of dogs that I have worrisome level of fearlessness.” But that’s not true, either. That’s not true unless you come from another planet or have some very peculiar brain damage. Humans find certain things scary, and that’s perfectly fine. We’re all human, after all. And take heart: admitting our fear of dogs, as dog professionals, doesn’t make us worse at our jobs. Quite the opposite, in fact. Admitting that dogs are, on some occasions, close enough to our Pleistocene predators to evoke some deep-level fears is actually ethical, helpful, and freeing. Pretending we’re not scared is when issues crop up.

Imagine this scenario. You have a client with two 80lb mastiff crosses. The dogs have been arguing over bones. They have argued at least 20 times in the last few years and never done any real harm to each other. The owner decides that she’d like to train the dogs to stop arguing because her new condo association finds the noise to be too much. Usually with a client with infrequent and non-injurious dog-dog resource guarding, you don’t recommend training—it’s just normal dog stuff, after all. However, you have a great plan to work on it anyways, so you head on over to start working with Chomper and Bruiser. All is well in the consult until the moment that Chomper decides that the time is neigh to chomp, and Bruiser returns the favour with a bit of bruising. They start to brawl. 160 pounds of brawl. A tiny ear nick produces a spray of blood in the way ear nicks do.

And you blink.

Your heart rate spikes as your sympathetic nervous system ramps up, although you and the owner manage to separate the dogs without fuss. As per usual with these two dogs, no injuries resulted from the fight other than the tiny nick.

But wait. Something’s different than the time you worked with the squabbling Labradoodles or the arguing Pugs. This time, you’re upset.

“Well hold right on, that’s not right” you say. You’ve trained scrapping dogs for years; your heart is hardened against the fury of fights. You’ve competed in agility and flyball with working-line border collies, for goodness’ sake. Ain’t no way a dog fight is going to make you upset. You’re fearless.

So what’s going on with the pounding heart, then? Something must be really wrong, you decide. Maybe it’s a chemical imbalance. You take an axe to your beautifully laid out plans and start to dismantle them. It’s obviously unsafe for these dogs to live together in this house, these dogs with their violent brawling that made your heart beat like a castanet. Something’s wrong with these dogs. They’re just waiting to kill each other or harm your client. Or worse.

Remember what you thought after reading about the blink? Well, this should sound just as ridiculous. You should be whispering “why don’t I just admit that being scared of large dogs fighting is a normal human emotion? Why the tortuous logic and plan dismantling?” And you’d be right to whisper that. Recommending crate-and-rotate, re-homing, or euthanasia for non-injurious dog fights is as silly as chopping down a wall to prevent a blink response. And this is the rub.

If we tell ourselves we’re fearless, then when we do actually feel scared, the only conclusion we can come to is that the dog in question must actually be scary. There is no other way out of the cognitive box we’ve jumped into.

But that’s just not a box that dog trainers can afford to get comfy in. The welfare of our dogs, and our clients’ dogs, is at stake. If we use our own heartrate as a barometer of a dog’s threat, rather than established methods focussing on real risk and acquired bite inhibition, then we’re simply doing all dogs a disservice. This fear usually shows up with certain breeds (this is personal, but there are trends which you can guess), certain sizes of dogs (the bigger the better, unsurprisingly), or certain behaviours (aggression of all sorts, no matter how ritualized, but in combination with breed and size even unruliness can work). Preventing a playful, social dog from having the joy of dog play after non-injurious scrapping is the typical outcome here, although other, sadder outcomes are also possible.

So the next time you feel your heartrate start to skip, be thankful. It’s the gift that kept your ancestors alive, so that xx years later, you could catch a lift on this mortal coil. And it’s kind of interesting, to feel your pupils blow and your nostrils flare and the sound of your heart in your ears…but don’t be fooled by it. You’re scared because you’re human. In most cases it has absolutely nothing to do with the dog in front of you.

We are all, to a one, scared of dogs. We’re scared because we’re human. In most cases it has absolutely nothing to do with the dog in front of us.

 

 

Cover photo credit: Utopia_88 by iStock.

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Preparing Our Dogs to be Comfortable at the Vet’s Office: the Academy’s Husbandry Project

Preparing Our Dogs to be Comfortable at the Vet’s Office: the Academy’s Husbandry Project

We used to accept it as a given that dogs just didn’t like going to the vet, and that there wasn’t much to be done about it. However, things are really changing in today’s more patient-centric veterinary care models. No longer is it considered acceptable to frighten or traumatize dogs in order to do routine veterinary care. From vaccinations to ear exams, the old way of cornering and manhandling wide-eyed and trembling dogs has been replaced with the idea of co-operative care with dogs who are comfortable enough to participate willingly. Vets and their staff are learning how to approach, move, and treat dogs without causing alarm, and are becoming much more aware of the use of anxiety-reducing medications to help those dogs who are suffering despite a careful approach. The physical and emotional health of animals is at the forefront of modern veterinary care, especially with the growing Fear Free movement and certification.

The Academy for Dog Trainers resoundingly supports this movement in the veterinary community. The Academy’s program and graduates in good standing adhere to a strict code of conduct that clearly outlines our position against the use of techniques and practices that hurt or scare dogs. We are thankful and relieved that veterinarians are leading the charge to make dogs comfortable with vet visits, from the very moment the dog enters through their office door.

However, the Academy acknowledges that for many dogs, and for many veterinary situations, changes within the clinic cannot be the whole answer. To reduce or eliminate fear of veterinary care, many dogs first need carefully-crafted, incremental training outside of the veterinary office, and then within the veterinary office but with no scary procedures happening, before they can be comfortable with real-life vet care. And that’s where the Academy’s ongoing Husbandry Project steps up to the plate.

The Academy has been working with our students and graduates for several years now on the Husbandry Project, which is our own contribution to the modern veterinary approach of pain-free and fear-free veterinary care. The Husbandry Project’s goals are to create, test, refine, and publish training plans to help all dogs feel comfortable and happy at the vet’s office, and with the common veterinary procedures carried out on conscious dogs. These training plans will be accompanied by all the information a dog owner needs to carry out the training: step-by-step instructional videos, troubleshooting information, work plans, and so on.

Why training plans?

Training plans are simply a series of steps needed to get a dog from untrained to trained. The steps need to be something which most dogs can achieve, and the end product of the plan, the so-called “terminal behaviour”, must be clearly laid out. For the Academy’s Husbandry Project, our terminal behaviours include “dog will do a stay in lateral recumbency for a range-of-motion test on the exam table”. Training without a plan (for example, picking up a clicker and just starting to free-shape, or trying to get a dog to do anything without first strategizing how you’ll elicit the behaviour and then fade any prompts) can be fun to do at home when there are no stakes. But it’s inefficient when we need results. And to prevent or treat fearfulness at the veterinary office, we do indeed need results.

What are we going to train?

The Academy chose to tackle a number of specific behaviours and veterinary procedures in consultation with a steering committee of veterinarians. These veterinarians are either in our program currently or are graduates. They identified both common fear-inducing triggers for dogs at the vet’s office, and common procedures needed. With this information in hand, and with decades working with fearful dogs of all shapes and sizes, the Academy’s director Jean Donaldson drafted around 20 separate plans. These plans range from a sit-stay for a jugular blood draw to a plan to get fearful dogs comfortable on the exam table to a plan to have a dog stay standing relatively still for a vaccination or ear exam. These plans include two main types: Pavlovian (or classical) conditioning plans to get dogs comfortable with veterinary implements, staff, and offices, and operant conditioning plans to get dogs comfortable holding the positions they’ll need to hold for various procedures.

Classical conditioning plans

Classical or Pavlovian conditioning changes a dog’s underlying emotional state. A well-drafted plan carried out by a knowledgeable trainer or well-coached dog owner is a powerful tool in the prevention of fears, but also to change an already-fearful dog’s emotional response to an item or situation. The Husbandry Project’s classical conditioning plans will ensure that participating dogs enjoy muzzles, tooth-brushing, veterinary implements, and also the vet waiting room and exam room, and veterinary staff.

Operant conditioning plans

Since manhandling dogs and forcing them to endure vaccinations, manipulations, or exams is no longer an acceptable standard of veterinary care, dogs must be taught to assume a variety of positions on cue. The Husbandry Project operant conditioning plans will ensure that participating dogs are trained to assume relevant positions such as standing still or lying on their sides (lateral recumbency) and to remain in these positions for the usual types of veterinary procedures. Since all training will be done using positive reinforcement, the dogs will also learn to enjoy assuming these positions. 

Why data collection?

Although Academy staff have created thousands of successful training plans, drafting a training plan and simply offering it up for public use is inappropriate and can sometimes even have dangerous consequences. Untested plans can go wrong in a few different ways. Training plans that are too vague or too hard can cause dog owners to give up and return to old (possibly fear-inducing) habits. And this is to say nothing of the owners who throw their hands up in despair if the plan doesn’t work, and end up going to trainers comfortable with aversives to get things done. Dog owners, and dogs, deserve well-vetted training protocols and plans which allow for the majority of dogs to move through their training with the minimum of fuss. “Every dog is an individual” is a great marketing message but is simply not true when it comes to training. Most dogs will progress through well-vetted training plans in a similar way. In fact, a firm adherence to the ‘every dog is an individual’ credo seems to lead technically unskilled trainers towards aversive stimuli for dogs who would do just fine with a proficient R+ trainer and good plan.

For these reasons, the Academy has committed to not only drafting plans, but to drafting plans and having a good number of dogs and trainers work through them to work out the kinks, before offering them to the public. We’ve gathered a crew of our students and grads who have agreed to help us out, and sent the plans around. They’re all training every plan and taking careful notes: where are the plans inefficient? Where are they too pushy? We’re compiling the data and will use them to create a set of revised plans. These plans will be much closer to print-ready, but the Academy will do one final round of plan testing to be sure (read on below for how you can help us) before releasing them to the public.

We completed Phase One in 2017, which included all the classical conditioning plans and the baseline positions such as stand and lateral recumbency. Phase Two will be finished in the summer of 2018, and includes veterinary procedures such as range-of-motion tests and “vaccinations”.

Although the dogs in training aren’t technically “vet ready” until the end of Phase 2, they’re all living creatures who need regular vet care, so many of our tester dogs have already been to the vet. We have heard reports of many successful veterinary visits (including for dogs who were previously profoundly fearful), which is an indication of more good things to come. Please read on for some examples, below.

Interested in helping out?

If you’re interested in helping out with our next round of testing, we would love to have you. You must commit to train about 15 things with your dog. Depending on your dog, this might mean around 15 minutes at a time, a few times a week, for a few months. You must also be able to do some training at a veterinary office. This will require getting permission, although we will help with that by providing a letter template. Please email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. to be put on the notification list.

Successful veterinary visits

Although we are just partway through our project, many of our participants have had to jump the gun a bit, and take their partly-trained dogs in for veterinary care. We are delighted with the results and would like to share a few of them, to tempt any dog owners into participating in our next round of plan vetting.

Luke and Tovah

Luke is standing on a scale and putting his nose into Tovah’s outstretched hand.

Luke is standing on a scale and putting his nose into Tovah’s outstretched hand.

Academy graduate Tovah Riester (Facebook) and her dog Luke have been hard at work training the Academy’s plans, including a stand stay on the scale. Tovah said “My Luke was taught the stationing on the vet’s scale and has used it three times since then! He had dental surgery so lots of visits back to back and they weigh him every time”. Scales can be quite scary for some dogs.

The most important thing we have made use of from our participation in this project is the positive conditioned emotional response Luke has to his vet office. [A recent]  tooth extraction was very painful for him. His recovery time took much longer than other surgeries he's had at other vet clinics. However, the next visit to the vet, Luke was clearly very happy to be back there despite the painful visit.

Christian, Bree, and Safi

Caption: Bree and Safi on the exam table, ready for treatment (and treats)

Academy graduate Christian Williams (website) is training her two Border Collies to enjoy vet care.

Bree and Safi live in South East London with older brother Rusty and little big sister Pod. I adopted Rusty, Bree and Safi as a family through Valgrays Border Collie Rescue in 2012.

As a very sociable dog, Bree (Blue Merle) has always enjoyed vet visits. Shy and sound sensitive Safi (Black and White) used to spend most of the time at the surgery trying to get out the door.

Road testing the Academy’s Husbandry Project Training Plans has boosted Safi’s confidence and turned vet visits from “get me outta here” to “let’s have fun –this is where the venison sausage treats flow!”. How did we get from scary place to good place? We practiced at home and built lifting onto a table into the most fabulous thing. We developed olfactory CER’s to the “smell of the Veterinary Surgery” and we visited the surgery for practice visits. Last visit, instead of pulling on her lead to get back to the car, Safi sniffed excitedly all around the waiting room, she had never done this before. Then she whizzed right into the exam room and danced around on her hind legs – peeping at the top of the exam table. “Wow, you’re keen Saf” I thought as I lifted her up. And up she went & those tasty sausage treats appeared as if by magic.

Does this stuff work? It does! Two weeks ago, Safi had a minor eye infection, off to the vets we went. We had some fun in the waiting room doing our stationing game. Then into the exam room and yes, you’ve guessed it – straight up on that exam table.

Eva and Bjorn

Bjorn holds a lateral recumbency position while having hot and cold compresses applied.

Eva Kifri worked through the Husbandry Project plans with her agility champ Malamutes, which came in handy when one of her dogs needed hot and cold compresses after a surgery. "Having just completed recovery from that surgery, Bjorn then lacerated his ear and required further treatment...and one day after returning to regular activity, he broke a toe and spent four weeks in a cast. The flounder position [lateral recumbency] helped him to get through his treatments; giving him a lot of control over the pace."

Having been trained into a useful position is a huge step forward in reduced stress and difficulty with an exam/treatment, even for a  dog who is reasonably relaxed/non fearful and good about body handling. It's not just a nice bonus. It’s also not particularly difficult to do in advance—cooperative care really should be part of basic pet training/knowledge… The reduction in stress to the dog –in having the  treatments and exam procedures be familiar and active things that they do cannot really be overstated.

Melanie and Wyatt

Trainer Melanie Cerone (website, Facebook) was working through the husbandry plans with her dog Wyatt when he developed some hot spots that needed veterinary care.

Wyatt had developed some “hot spots” on his hind quarters near his tail from incessant chewing, possibly due to allergies. I took him to the vet on Friday and the vet and vet tech needed to comb through the hair on his back-end and tail to see the sore spots. I used the muzzle station [the Husbandry Project’s stand-stay] throughout the exam and he did beautifully! He held the station for the entire exam with me reinforcing every five seconds or so since this was the first time we had used the station for a real exam. Both the vet and the tech were impressed and commented on how well he did throughout the exam. 

Then, we decided to clip some hair around one of the largest sores where I needed to apply an antibiotic spray daily. Wyatt’s never been clipped and I wasn’t sure what to expect. The vet initially suggested that the tech take Wyatt to another room and have a second tech assist her with the clipping, but then she said that Wyatt did so well during the exam the tech could just shave the spot in the exam room with me there (and no second tech). The tech got the electric clippers and just turned them on while I had Wyatt station. He did not react to the sound of the clippers and stationed beautifully. She then clipped the spot while he continued to station. I have to say I was pretty blown away, and so was the tech. 

It was about as stress-free a vet visit as we’ve ever had. The vet and the tech commented repeatedly how grateful they were to have such an “easy” patient.

Megan and Atrus

Megan and Atrus practiced the stationing behaviours in the Husbandry Project plans before they were needed.

Trainer Megan O’Hara (website, Facebook) was part way through the training plans when her dog Atrus needed to visit the vet for full glands. Megan reported that “Atrus was able to hold a chin station the whole time. It was a proud momma moment, for sure.”

 

Cover photo Credit:vadimguzhva via istock.

 

 

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Academy Vet Talk: Resource Guarding in Dogs

Academy Vet Talk: Resource Guarding in Dogs

As a veterinarian and dog trainer, I often get asked, “How can I stop my dog from snarling at me when he's eating? It is so disrespectful. No matter how much I yell at him or take his food away when he does it, he still seems to forget that I'm the one who feeds him.” Luckily, disrespect isn't part of the equation, even though it really looks and feels like it is. I can usually make a quick diagnosis: Resource Guarding. Thankfully, it's a problem that is usually straightforward to address.

What is it?

Resource guarding is when dogs exhibit behaviors designed to prevent other animals (dogs, humans, cats, etc.) from obtaining something that is in their possession. They've got a thing they want to keep (the resource), so they do stuff (guarding) to make sure the other animals in the area don't try to take it. Dogs most commonly will guard food, treats, toys, and locations. Sometimes they will also guard certain humans. Guarding is usually directed at other dogs (dog-dog), or humans (dog-human).

What does it look like?

Some guarding is quite obvious: growling, snarling, snapping, biting, lunging/chasing, or even taking an item away to hide. Some is more subtle: tense muscles/freezing, “hard eye” (staring), or eating food or treats faster than normal.

Why do dogs do it?

Because they evolved to want stuff!

It's very important to understand that resource guarding can be a very normal behavior for dogs. The warnings that dogs give—growls, snarls, stares, freezing—are the dog trying to communicate politely, in dog language, that they would like you to back off. If you or the other dog listen to his request and back off, this is likely where the situation will end. It's perfectly reasonable for a dog to say, “I'd rather keep this delicious snack to myself, thank you.”

 

If I had a $1000 bill in my hand, you would not fault me one bit for pulling it away from you as you reached towards it. I might even say, “Sorry, you can't have that!” as I put it back in my pocket. Of course I want to keep my money. I need to pay my mortgage and feed my kids! A dog freezing, staring, growling, eating faster, or even snarling, is doing the same thing. He's saying, “Hey, that's mine! Please don't take it!”

 

What should we do about it?

As with many behavior problems, there are three main ways to go on this one: acceptance, management, and training. In this case, the training would consist of desensitization and counter-conditioning.

            Acceptance—or doing nothing—is appropriate when the guarding is mild, does not inconvenience or scare anyone, and NEVER involves injuries. For example, dog-dog guarding in which the dogs are “talking” but never injuring each other can usually be left alone. It's like Animal Planet in your living room—just sit back and enjoy watching two animals talk in the language of their species!

            Management alone is appropriate when there is minimal risk to humans or animals, and when the type of guarding allows for changing the environment to accommodate the guarder. For example, a dog who growls and practically inhales his food when other dogs are nearby can easily just be fed in another room with the door closed. He will most likely appreciate being able to eat in peace! A dog who growls at the owner when he approaches while the dog is working on a dental chewy can be put in his crate at chewy time and left alone until he is done. Management may also be used in more serious cases either while training is taking place, or if training is not feasible. 

            Training is appropriate when the guarding is more severe, results in injuries, or if it is inconvenient enough to the owner to make the time investment worthwhile. Training can also be done preventatively if the owner wishes (this is highly recommended for puppies!). Rather than focusing directly on changing the behavior (growling, biting, etc.), this training focuses on changing the dog's emotional reaction to having his “stuff” taken from him. Instead of, “Oh crap! Here they come to take my food!” we want, “Oh boy! Here they come to take my food! Yayayayayay!!”

What should we NOT do?

Unfortunately it's all too easy to make resource guarding worse. Punishing the warnings dogs give us, taking items away repeatedly with no reward, smacking or “alpha-rolling” dogs for guarding all actually make the guarding more serious. Dogs that are punished for guarding may stop giving the warning signs, but they still don't want you to take their stuff. And if pushed too far, they are more likely to bite.

 

You see that I have $1000, and you ask me for it. I say ,“No way, that's mine!” You grab it out of my hand and leave. Next payday, you ask for my money again. I yell at you, “NO! IT'S MINE AND YOU CAN'T HAVE IT!” You get right up in my face and yell, “DON'T YOU DARE YELL AT ME!” and then take my money and leave. Two weeks later, you walk up to me when I have my paycheck in my pocket. I don't even wait for you to say anything, I just deliver a knock-out punch right to your nose. Whoops.

 The second scenario is even worse. You take my money, then smack me or yell at me for protesting politely. I tend to be a pretty timid person, so the next 5 times you take my money, I'm silent. You think, “oh good, she learned to respect me,” but inside I'm getting more and more upset. The final time you take my money, I blow up, break your nose, and give you a concussion. Dogs can easily do the same thing when punished for objecting to their things being taken. They learn that they aren't allowed to TELL you they are upset, but it doesn't change the fact that they ARE upset, and they may eventually be pushed too far and end up biting you or someone else with no warning. 

 

How does this desensitization and counter-conditioning stuff work?

Desensitization and counter-conditioning is all about starting where the dog is comfortable (a toy or object he really couldn't care less about), and gradually teaching him to LOVE having his stuff taken by giving him even better stuff than whatever it was we took away. As he learns to love having his stuff taken, we very slowly increase the difficulty towards the stuff he really doesn't want to give up.


Remember my $1000? What if, instead of you taking my whole $1000, you started out just taking a dollar, and then handing me $2 in return. The next time you see me, you take $5, and immediately hand me $10. You gradually take more and more, but each time you give me back twice as much. As I figure out the pattern, I start getting pretty happy when I see you approach. I might even try to get you to take my money.

That's what we want with dogs. We want them to want us to take their stuff. And we get there by paying them handsomely for giving their stuff to us. It may take a while, especially if there's a history of you taking my money with no reward. But if we work on it carefully and slowly enough, we can get there.

 

Hire a qualified trainer!

When working on sensitive issues like resource guarding, the devil is in the details. I highly recommend working with a qualified trainer for this problem. You'll make progress much faster, and you'll be less likely to get stuck or start going in the wrong direction. When hiring a trainer, be sure to ask about their methods and training education. You want someone who will train without pain, fear, or force, and ideally someone with a lot of high-quality education and experience. There is an excellent blog on finding a good trainer here, and you can search for an Academy for Dog Trainers graduate in your area here.

 

Cover photo credit: Jeannie Hutchins Photography

Second photo: iStock Credit Tepepa79

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